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Venkata C, Venkateshiah SB. Division of Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. email@example.com Pregnancy is associated with many physiologic and hormonal changes along with changes in sleep architecture, placing pregnant women at risk for the development of sleep-disordered breathing or worsening of preexisting sleep apnea. Snoring, the most common symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is markedly increased during pregnancy. The exact prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant women is unknown. Because the apneic episodes are commonly associated with oxyhemoglobin desaturations, the combination of obstructive sleep apnea and pregnancy can be potentially harmful to the fetus given the low oxygen reserves during pregnancy. Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with an increased risk of hypertension among the general population, and this raises the possibility of its association with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. In this clinical review, we discuss the physiologic changes of pregnancy that predispose pregnant women to the development of obstructive sleep apnea and the effects of sleep-disordered breathing on pregnancy outcomes. We also review the recommendations regarding evaluation for sleep apnea and treatment options during pregnancy and postpartum. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009 Mar-Apr;22(2):158-68 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264939
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD001004.LinksComment in: Evid Based Med. 2006 Aug;11(4):106. Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001004. Surgery for obstructive sleep apnea Sundaram S, Bridgman SA, Lim J, Lasserson TJ. Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, Norfolk, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome(OSAHS) is the periodic reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. The syndrome is associated with loud snoring, disrupted sleep and observed apnoeas. Surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome aims to alleviate symptoms of daytime sleepiness, improve quality of life, and reduce the signs of sleep apnoea recorded by polysomnography. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of any type of surgery for the treatment of the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register and reference lists of articles. We contacted experts in the field, research dissemination bodies and other Cochrane Review Groups. Searches were current as of July 2005. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing any surgical intervention for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome with other surgical or non-surgical interventions or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers assessed electronic literature search results for possibly relevant studies. Characteristics and data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted and entered into RevMan 4.2. MAIN RESULTS: In the 2005 update for this review eight studies (412 participants) of mixed quality met the inclusion criteria. Data from seven studies were eligible for assessment in the review. No data could be pooled. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) versus conservative management (one trial): An un validated symptom score showed intermittent significant differences over a 12-month follow-up period. No differences in Polysomnography (PSG) outcomes were reported. Laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP) versus conservative management/placebo (two trials): One study recruited mixed a population, and separate data could not be obtained for this trial. In the other study no significant differences in Epworth scores or quality of life reported. A significant difference in favour of LAUP was reported in terms of apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) and frequency and intensity of snoring. UPPP versus oral appliance (OA) (one trial): AHI was significantly lower with OA therapy than with UPPP. No significant differences were observed in quality of life. UPPP versus lateral pharyngoplasty (lateral PP) (one trial): No significant difference in Epworth scores, but a greater reduction in AHI with lateral PP was reported. Tongue advancement (mandibular osteotomy) + PPP versus tongue suspension + PPP (one trial): There was a significant reduction in symptoms in both groups, but no significant difference between the two surgery types. Complications reported with all surgical techniques included nasal regurgitation, pain and bleeding. These did not persist in the long term. An additional study assessed the effects of four different techniques. No data were available on between group comparisons. Multilevel temperature-controlled radiofrequency tissue ablation (TCRFTA) versus sham placebo and CPAP (one trial): There was an improvement in primary and secondary outcomes of TCRFTA over sham placebo and but no difference in symptomatic improvement when compared with CPAP. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are now a small number of trials assessing different surgical techniques with inactive and active control treatments. The studies assembled in the review do not provide evidence to support the use of surgery in sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, as overall significant benefit has not been demonstrated. The participants recruited to the studies had mixed levels of AHI, but tended to suffer from moderate daytime sleepiness where this was measured. Short-term outcomes are unlikely to consistently identify suitable candidates for surgery. Long-term follow-up of patients who undergo surgical correction of upper airway obstruction is required. This would help to determine whether surgery is a curative intervention, or whether there is a tendency for the signs and symptoms of sleep apnoea to re-assert themselves, prompting patients to seek further treatment for sleep apnoea.